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Full text of "Course of study in pedagogics"

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COURSE OF STUDY 



IN 



PEDAGOGICS 



KRANCIS W. PARKKlv* 



The Ideal School as the Ideal Community 



A NEW COURSE 



PREPARED FOR 

CHICAGO NORMAL SUMMER SCHOOL 



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CHICA(;() NORMAL SUMMER SCHOOL, July 5 to 23 



COURSE OF STUDY 



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p PKDAGOGICS 



KRANCIS W. PARKKR 



The Ideal School as the Ideal Community 



A NEW COURSE 



Recommended for preparatory study, 

Talks on Pedagogics, — E. S. Kello^ & Co., New York 



1 



1 




MOTIVE IN EDUCATION. 



Thesis. 



^i:t-i>^-*<i 



The altruistic motive, the giving of one's powers, body, 
mind and soul for the good of others, should be domin- 
ant and controlling in all human action. 

a. Under the execution of this motive a human being is devel- 
oped into the highest possible moral power. 

b. In studying and supplying the needs of others, one acquires 
the most knowledge and intellectual development. 

c. The motive of doing good for others leads one to the greatest 
care of the body and, consequently, the best physical training. 

Historical proof. 

a. The final judgment of all human organizations, church, state 
and society is derived from what an organization has put into 
this world as an active and eternal good. That these final 
judgments do not depend upon creed, form of government or 
constitutions, but upon spiritual effects of human action. 

b. That the final judgment of noted men and women in all ages, 
that the concensus of the opinions of civilized beings depends 
upon the motive of the being, manifested in life and action. 
Acts of selfishness may be admired, but the actors are never 
loved. Acts of altruism are always met by the love of all 
mankind, when sufficient time has elapsed for them to be 
understood and appreciated. By this standard think of the 
common opinion of mankind of Alexander, Caesar, Napoleon, 
Washington, Lincoln, Florence Nightingale, Comenius, 
Pestalozzi and Froebel. The deepest and profoundest in- 
stincts of man turn unerringly to the altruistic motive. 

Common sense proof. 

a. In all our personal friendships, our final judgment of friends 
depends upon our belief of their motive in life. Just so far as 
that motive is for the good of man does the memory of a 
friend remain with us as a sweeet incense. 

b. In the instinctive watching, observation and investigation of 
each other, we are guided in our judgments by the altruistic 
motive. We instinctively turn to the motive of a human being 
as the highest that is in him. We even admire animals who 
love their masters. 

— 3 — 



4. Art. 

<7. There never was in the history of the world a bit of immortal 
art, literature, music, poetry, painting, or sculpture, created 
under the desire for fame or wealth. It is granted that many 
love truth in both art and science, for truth's sake, and thus 
produce very important results, but the highest results come 
from the inspiration that the work done will be of use to man. 

;. Moral development. 

(t. All there is to study is the fiffc/s of tnankind ; ail there is to 
do is to supply those needs. 

b. Morality consists in thinking how we can help someone to a 
better life; ethics, in putting such thoughts into action. There 
can be neither morality nor ethics unless someone is helped 
thereby to live a more spiritual life. The constant execution 
of the altruistic motion is intrinsic moral growth. 

c. The feeling that every act performed goes into the elevation 
of the human race, is the highest and noblest incentive to 
study. All truth that was ever discovered, or ever will be, is 
for the advancement of civilization. The application of a 
principle to the good of others is the strongest incentive to 
the acquisition of that princi!)le. 

Note. — The altruistic motive, then — the desire to seek 
and use knowledge for the good of mankind, the belief that 
your personal knowledge is to move on in the eternity of 
good influences, impels to persistence and constant struggle 
for the truth. It gives the deepest insight and the best 
guidance. 

d. The physician who desires to prevent or cure disease out of 
love for humanity. 

e. The statesman who feels the needs of his people, and has an 
earnest wish to help them. 

/. The teacher whose one problem is to help some weak or 
defective child. 

6. Physical development. 

a. The controlling desire to be of great use to the world leads 
one to nourish, develop, train, and otherwise use the body so 
that it will ever be in the highest state of vigor and health. 
No other motive urges one so powerfully to develop the highest 
physical activity. The best physical training is that which 
best nourishes an active brain. 
/. Overcoming bad habits. 

a. -Most human beings are the victims of bad habits. There is 
no spur to courage, persistence, and determined struggle in 
overcoming and changing a bad habit like the belief that 
those habits will be imitated and enter into the lives of others, 
crippling and obstructing growth. 
— 4 



8. Practical work. 

a. \'ocation is to be judged by what it gives mankind. 
d. In agriculture, trades, business manufactures and commerce, 
when the highest incentive is the function of the thing made, 
or sold, it enhances the care, art or artifice in making or sell- 
ing—it inspires one to be honest, careful, artistic. 
» c. That this work, whatever it may be, is going into eternity of 

human life, is the strongest incentive to human action. Through 
the altruistic man feels his greatest dignity. 

g. Altruistic motive applied to teaching. 

a. Education is the science of all sciences; teaching is the art 
of all arts. 

d. The teacher is not only responsible for the spiritual welfare 
of each pupil under her charge, but for every child in the 
never ending series. The teacher is responsible in a marked 
degree for society. The school of today is the society of to- 
morrow. 

c. The fundamental incentive to the study of subjects of thought 
and the study of the child is an appreciation of the unlimited 
responsibility of the teacher. 

d. The feeling that the realization of human possibilities for 
good are infinite, that true teaching leads to the realization of 
possibilities in the individual, can come only through a pro- 
found and permanent love for humanity. 

e. All great discoveries and reforms in education have come by 
men who where imbued with a dominating love for humanity, 
whose one question was, how to make mankind better — 
Comenius, Pestalozzi, Froebel, Horace Mann. 

Note. — Insight and guidance spring from the exercise 
of the altruit^tic motive. P'irst the comprehension of the 
problem, then the discovery of its solution; first an under- 
standing of human needs, and then the means to supply 
them. 

[O. An appreciation of the tremendous responsibility of a 
teacher leads to a prolonged and intelligent struggle in 
preparation. 

a. The common aim: the shortest cut into the school-room 

through a diploma or examination. 
d. The common purpose: earning money. 
c. The common result: poor teaching by an artisan teacher. 



The profession of teaching requires more preparation, 
moral, intellectual and professional, than any other pro- 
fession. 

a. Appreciation of the screaiest of the art leads a candidate to 
make every effort, financial and otherwise, to acquire the art. 

d. One who has any appreciation of the art, or feeling of respon- 
sibility of teaching, shrinks from entering a school as a teacher. 

f. The necessity for courage is greatly enhanced by the exceed- 
ingly low state of public opinion in regard to education. It 
is also enhanced by the extreme difficulties in overcoming 
prevailing defective methods; in convincing superintendents 
and principals that better methods and means be used. 

^. The only way to introduce better means and methods is to 
Practically demonstrate their use and superiority. People 
are like Thomas — they believe when they see atidfeel. 

e. Such reforms require great and persistant courage, tact, 
patience and self-control— all of which are not possible with- 
out a dominating love for humanity. 

Love for children leads teachers to' a close study of 
personalities, to an appreciation of the good in them, 
and to an understanding of their evil tendencies. 

a. There is a false love for children, a superficial sympathy, a 
pleasure in tricks and manners, a desire to be loved by them 
which leads to petting and over-exercise of precocious in- 
stincts. 

b. A true love for children is the one incentive to understand 
them, to study their natures, to differentiate one character 
from all others, to comprehend personal needs. 

c. To know a child and to supply his needs, is the sum and sub- 
stance of all education. Teaching demands one everlasting 
study of personal character, one patient and persistent pres- 
entation of conditions for the growth and development of that 
character. 

d. Love begets patience. Changes in character come about with 
great slowness. Changes in character mean changes in brain- 
development, changes in muscles, in nerves, indeed, in the 
whole being. A chronic difficulty, physical, moral or mental, 
yields only to constant and well-directed application of the 
right means to the end. Love alone can find the way. 

e. Such love develops the highest courage,— courage to stand 
between the child and all evil influences of badly arranged 
courses of study, public opinion, unjust demands of parents, 
ignorant supervision, examinations upon memorized words, 
the immoral fear of punishment. No one can understand the 
child' s educational needs but the teacher. 

-6 - 



13. Intellectual development of the teacher. 

a. The child is the central subject of study beneath the throne 
of God. 

b. The teacher, incited by love, is a constant and persistent 
student of the child and its needs, which comprehend all 
knowledge. 

c. Each child differs from all others, therefore, a new pupil is a 
new study. 

d. There is no means of mental growth comparable with teach- 
ing. 

14. Moral growth. 

a. The development of the altruistic motive is essentially moral 
growth. 

b. Love of humanity concenters upon the weak and the helpless. 

15. Physical training. 

a. Any imperfect state of the body, any chronic physical weak- 
ness, any temporary sickness, is a great hindrance to teach- 
ing power. 

b. A. teacher is quite apt to fancy that her pupils are in disorder, 
when the disorder is a personal and physical one. 

16. Moral training. 

a. If the foregoing is true, then all the teacher has to do is to 
cultivate the altruistic motive in her pupils. An ideal school 
is an ideal community. 



II. 
CHILDREN'S INTERESTS. 

1. Every voluntary act has a purpose, end or goal. 

a. The purpose, end or goal is imaged by the mind. 

b. The image of the purpose, end or goal arouses the desire to 
attain. 

2. The imaged goal is held in the mind in the effort to 
realize the goal. 

a. In the movement toward the goal, the whole being is con- 
trolled by the effort to reach it. 

b. The movement toward the goal is the ?notive. 

c. The ideal moves the mind toward its realization. 



3- The end or gfoal determines the means by which the 
i^oa! ma\- be reached. 

(I. The two means by which a goal may he reached are first, 
knowledge, and second, expression. 

fi. The goal determines first, the knowledge needed to reach it. 

r. The being selects the knowledge under the direction of the 
piiri)ose, or end, to be reached. 

(f. All knowledge is valued as a means to the i)urpose or end. 

c. All facts or knowledge not needed to reach the end are in- 
hibited, or rigidly excluded. 

4. The adaptation of the knowledge, means and material, 
to the end in view, is reasonini^. 

a. The reasoning power is exercised only by putting knowledge 
into use. 

l>. The higher the goal, or ideal, the more carefully the know- 
ledge must be selected. 

c. The highest goal requires the highest quality of reasoning; 
that is, the highest exercise of the reasoning powers. 

^. The highest goal requires the most knowledge. 

e. That goal is the highest which reciuires all knowledge. 

/ The movement of the mind toward its goal demands continual 
study; that is, the continual acquisition of knowledge. 

£'. The goal itself determines the amount of knowledge, the 
(juality of knowledge, and the quality of the reasoning powers. 

//. The movement of the mind toward its goal demands continu- 
ous exercise of the reasoning powers. 

z. The goal as an image is constantly held in the mind, and the 
holding of the image demands continual growth of the image. 

5. Law of economy. It is a universal law of nature and of 
man to reach an end by the shortest line of resistance; 
in other words, to exercise the greatest economy con- 
sistent with the purpose to be attained. 

a. The mind is dominated by this invariable rule. Everything 
not adapted to the original recjuirement is rigidly excluded 
as of no use. 

d. The main ideal'of a being determines the knowledge to be 
selected and to be excluded. 

c. Persons are color blind to all knowledges not included in the 

personal movement toward a definite goal. 
(/. In other words, the scope of personal power is restricted to 

the main ideal to be attained. 



8- 



6 The way by which a person strives to attain any goal is 
method. All true methods, therefore, are personal. 

a. Method consists in the selection of knowledge to a definite 
end; the adaptation of the knowledge to that end, and its 
realization through expression. 

b. The methods are either personal, and therefore original, or 
imitative. 

c. When a method is imitative it must be used to attain a very 
limited goal. Imitation is mechanical. 

d. A persona] method means an ideal, the desire to attain it, 
the selection of the knowledge necessary to its attainment, 
the adaptation of that knowledge to the movement of the 
mind toward its goal, and its realization through expression. 

7. The fundamental law of human growth is self-activity. 
All self-activity has an end and aim. 

a. Duty is the person controlled by a feeling that a certain end 
and aim must be reached. 

b. Discipline is self-activity moving toward its goal. 

8. Interest may be explained in two ways: first, the image 
of the goal to be attained is always interesting and al- 
ways a source of pleasure; second, the movement of the 
mind toward its goal; that is. the action. of the mind in 
selecting and gaining knowledge, reasoning and express- 
ing thought, causes and accompanies the mental action 
by an emotion called interest. 

a. Interest excited by mental movement toward its goal may be 
pleasure or pain. 

b. The movement toward a goal may be a continual struggle in 
overcoming obstacles, in study and expression. The goal, 
however, must dominate personal activity. 

c. The goal held in the mind as an image, is anticipation which 
always intensely excites pleasure; while on the other hand the 
struggle to attain the goal may be painful in the extreme. 
Illustrations: as in a battle; in drowning and swimming for 
the shore; in gaining money that requires continual drudgery. 

d. Expression is the approximate realization of the goal. 

/. Ge?ieral statemoits. 

I. Any ideal that may be fully realized in one's lifetime is 
a low one. 



2. Human beings are always interested, because they are 
always moving toward some goal. 

//. Possible interests of children in school. 

1. Approbation. 

a. Of the teacher. 

b. Of classmates. 

c. Of parents. 

d. Of society. 

2. Competition or rivalry. 

a. The desire to stand high in the class; to be first; to be superior 
to others. 

3. Fear. 

a. Of failure. 

b. Of punishment. 

c. Of scolding. 

d. Of losing personal influence. 

e. Of failing in lessons or examinations. 

f. Of losing rewards. 

4. Rewards. 

a. Desire for daily credits and marks. 

b. Percents. 

c. To stand high in examinations. 

d. Promotions. 

e. Desire to be of use to others. 

5. Interests outside of the subject of the lesson. 

a. Personality of the teacher. 

b. Desire to tease the teacher by experiment and investigation, 

c. Desire to tease other pupils in the class; to make them laugh. 

d. Desire to " show off." 

e. Desire to show other pupils that they can avoid regular work 
and are not under the control of the teacher. 

/. The habit of falling into a line of miagery or revery not at all 
connected with the lesson. 

///. Lifie of investigatiofi on the part of teachers. 
I. Have children a permanent and controlling interest? 

a. Do these interests arise from instinct? 

b. What are the permanent and controlling interests of children.' 

c. Do all the permanent and controlling interests of children, if 
cultivated, conduce to normal growth? 

— 10 — 



Statement. — The deepest instinct in the child, and 
indeed, in humanity, is a desire to be recognized as of 
some use. 

a. Perversions of this instinct, that is, lack of cultivation of this in- 
stinct, lead to most direlections on the part of the child. 

General and concluding question. — If we knew the real, 
permanent interests of the child, springing from his instinct, 
and should cultivate them by presenting the right conditions, 
would this lead to the normal growth of the child? 



III. 
A SKETCH OF THE GREAT EDUCATIONAL RE- 
FORMERS AND THEIR PRINCIPLES. 

1. Education is the part man plays in human evolution. 

a. Man, communities, societies, nations, may hem, hinder, ob- 
struct and dwarf the evolution of man; 

b. Or may mightily assist the evolution of man through educa- 
tion. 

2. National and societ}^ ideals have a powerful influence 
upon the education of the masses. 

a. A fixed state of society and fixed governmental ideals deter- 
mine the limits of education. 

b. These limits and laws are broken through by reforms. 

c. Reforms in general are under the inspiration of a belief in a 
higher and better state of society. 

3. That state of society or national life only is good which 

by its laws, customs and education is moving toward the 

better and higher life of the masses. 

Note. — The education of most nations and communities 
is governed simply by tradition, of the customs of the past. 
The German schoolmaster has struggled to break through 
the traditions and find something like a science of edu- 
cation. 

4. Comenius. — "Things that should be done must be 
learned by doing them." 

a. All education is by self-activity. 



b. The personal ideal controls personal activities. 

c. The higher the ideal, the higher and better the activities. 

d. Although the great principle of Comenius is universal and 
absolute, the state ot society in Europe obstructed its appli- 
cation. The individual could not choose that which should be 
done, or, choosing, he could not do that which was necessary 
for the development of his personality. 

Pestalozzi. — "Education is the generation of power." 

a. Power is generated by personal activity, the activity directed 
by motive and working toward a goal. 

b. The goal determines the knowledge, the method, etc. (See 
lecture upon "Childrens' interests." 

t. Generation of personal power is limited by public opinion; 
by government; by class distinction; by customs. 

Froebel. — " Education is the harmonious growth of body, 
mind and soul." 

a. Again, education of a human being depends upon his per- 
sonal activity. 

b. The definition of Froebel means a continual use of personal 
activity in the highest and noblest directions; that is, for the 
good of man. 

c. It means personal liberty to become free. 

d. Under the ideals of government, this to the masses was not 
possible, as the one end and aim of education is the develop- 
ment of community life. 

e. The individual had no right, by human law, to choose that 
which should be in the highest community life. 

German definition of education. — "Education is the 
realization of human possibilities." 

a. A fixed form of government restricts and limits the develop- 
ment of human possibilities. 

b. On the one side we have the individual with great possibil- 
ities for good, and on the other an absolute barrier to the 
exercise and outgrowth of those possibilities. 

"Education is not the preparation for life, it is life." 

a. Education cannot presuppose any particular form, custom or 
manner of life. 

b. All education that thus restricts the development of life sets 
an absolute limit to personal power. It predestines the things 
that must be done. It makes the harmonious growth of body, 
mind and soul impossible. Under it there can be nothing 
like a complete realization of personal possibilities. 



IV. 

IDEAL COMMUNITY. 

Perfect liberty to become free. 

a. Nothing between the individual and the outworking of him- 
self (his design) through self-activity into the highest possible 
use to the community, the utmost realization of personal pos- 
sibilities, but himself. 

b. No human law written or unwritten, no custom, class, caste, 
tradition or fashion shall obstruct self-act;vity, — the move- 
ment of self toward personal ideals. 

c. The individual shall choose home, vocation, kind of society, 
religious sect, political party, with complete liberty. 

d. Liberty is the personal right of choice restricted only by 
God's eternal laws. 

<?. Freedom is perfect obedience to the laws of God. 
f. The movement into freedom is, first, discovering eternal 
laws; second, applying them. 

The supreme duty and privilege of a community is to 
give each individual the full and complete means of 
realizing personal possibilities. 

a. Human development, physical, mental and moral, depends 
upon self-activity, or the personal use the individual makes 
of his heredity and environment. Giving the individual any- 
thing more, or anything that is not needed for the most com- 
plete self-activity , cripples, dwarfs, and degrades the being. 

b. Education is the outworking of self into freedom; it depends 
upon that environment and those conditions which arouse, 
feed, nourish and stimulate self-activity in ^the direction of 
finding and obeying eternal laws. 

The one true end and aim of all human life is to assist 
in the evolution of community life, the life of the state, 
the nation and the world. 

a. Therefore, human life in communities, in states and in nations, 
is the highest, noblest comprehension of all studies, and the 
grandest in human action. 

b. The individual can become free only through the study of 
community life, and through the personal application of the 
truth thus found. 

c. The evolution of humanity should be the central study of all 
human beings, and the sole ideal of the individual. 



d. All other studies are auxiliary to the central studv; they con- 
verge and assist in the one study. 

e. The individual, under this ideal, puts his life into the com- 
munity and thus insures its permanent and persistent pro- 
gress. 

f. The community grows permanently and persistently because 
it receives from each individual his full measure of powder 
and influence. 

g. The individual receives from the community all it has to give, 
thus his personality is continually realizing higher possibil- 
ities. The community is constantly receiving the influence 
of each and all the personalities of which it consists. Each 
individual is an essential and intrinsic factor in human pro- 
gress. 

The democracy here outlined is purely ideal; it has 
never existed, does not now exist. It is the ideal to- 
wards which all efforts should tend. The only place hi 
which this ideal may have partial ontworkifig is the com- 
jnon school. 



V. 

THE IDEAL SCHOOL IS THE IDEAL COM- 
MUNITY. 

1. Membership of an ideal school. 

a. Rich and poor. 

b. Classes of society. 

c. Political parties. 

d. Religious sects. 

e. Nationalities. 
/. The sexes. 

g. Only those of moral or physical contagion should be excluded. 
h. Blending, fusing, uniting all classes under the control of one 
purpose. 

2. Number of pupils. 

a. The main factor in a school is the influence of all upon each 
and each upon all. 

b. Each pupil has a personal influence to exercise which no one 
else has. 

c. Too small numbers mean a meager influence. 



d. A teacher should diagnose each child; should know his moral, 
mental and physical characteristics; should understand his 
defects, and, above all, should comprehend the motive which 
guides his action. 

e. The best possible way to understand a child is to watch him 
carefully in his contact with other children. Each child with 
whom he comes in contact is a test of character. The child's 
attitude towards a number of his mates (forty or fifty) is the 
best of moral qualities. 

/ Grades should come together once a day in morning exercises. 
g. Should play together, with the teachers. 

3. The comjiion school is the only school which can be or- 
ganized into an ideal community. 

a. A child cannot be educated at home for lack of congenial 
society. Selfishness is a common result of home education. 

b. The two sexes cannot be educated separately. They need 
each other's society. 

c. No child can be educated in a private school. Seggregation 
means misunderstanding; and misunderstanding, dislike and 
hate. 

4. The teacher is an organizer of community life. 

a. The one purpose of the teacher should be to organize an ideal 
state of society. 

b. The most potent intiuence a teacher can exercise over an in- 
dividual is through the community feeling of the whole school; 
in other words, public opinion. 

c. The deepest, strongest, most perina7ient and most potent feelmg 
of the child is the desire to be recognized as a personality , as a 
being of use and influe?tce. Under this desire he is ready to 
do what the others do. 

d. Many a child has been socially disintegrated by inculcated 
selfishness. This moral disease is often chronic; it may take 
a long time to cure it. 

e. Its cure must come through feeling; through a genuine desire 
to join the little democracy. Precept will have little effect; 
punishment and scolding may bring about a hypocritical con- 
formance. The child must be (/raw;? by his own heart; he 
must /^,?/ there is something good that he can do. The Kin- 
dergarten the ideal community. 

5. Order in an ideal school. 

a. All moral feeling spring from a desire to help others. Moral 
action consists in helping others. 



15 



h. Order is the personal limitation of one's own enerffv to move- 
ment and progress of the ideal school. 

c. Stillness may be absolute disorder. The body may remain 
in a seeming attitude of attention, while the mind is making 
excursions in a variety of forbidden fields. Xo external 
authority can control the pupils' stream of thought. 

d. A pupil is always interested in somethmg. Interest concen- 
trated upon the work in hand, is order. 

e. Attention means a succession of concentration and expanding 
images that directly relate to the subject studied. This atten- 
tion is order. 

f. In recitation the pupils listen intently to everything said, and 
observe closely everything done. In recitation each pupil helps 
the teacher and every other pupil in the class. 

g. Laboratory seat and home study is a preparation to do the 
most good, or be of the greatest use in the class recitation. 

//. In good order everything that hinders the best educative 

action of others is inhibited. 
i. Fo7-)nal order is courtesy toward all. 

Rules and regulations. 

a. Rules and regulations have for their purpose the greatest 
economy of personal energy, on the part of the entire school 
in educative work. 

b. Rules are of two kinds— co-operative and inhibitive. 

c. Co-operative rules mean those rules which are essential to 
economy in concert movement; punctuality, promptness, 
marching, standing, rising, recess, etc. 

d. Inhibitive rules are to make the work of each individual con- 
ducive to the work of each and all. When a pupil does that 
which hinders or obstructs the best action of others, or of the 
class, he commits a crime against the school. 

In organizing- the ideal school (a continual and continu- 
ous process) pupils may be induced to make far better 
rules than the teacher can make. 

a. They are better because the pupils make them, and they 
spring from feelings of necessity. 

b. Because they represent the concensus of opinion of all the 
class, and will reflect personal needs. 

c. The gradual making of the rules, and they should be made 
only as necessities are felt, is the best possible practical study 
of civics. 

d. As a class advances, the lessons of history may be used at 
every step in the formulation of laws. 

- i6 - 



When pupils make their own laws, they feel personally 
responsible for their execution. 

a. Responsibility gives each pupil a rightful and just dignity. 
He belongs, he takes part, he is a citizen. 

b. Responsibility makes him thoughtful concerning his own 
rights, the rights of others, the necessities for law and order. 

c. In an ideal school he is acquiring the habits and the powers of 
citizenship. 

In an ideal school each and every pupil feels the neces- 
sity, the reason of everything done. He learns by con- 
tinued practice to discriminate between right and wrong. 

a. The pupil follows no blind rules—does not yield through fear 
to absolute authority; does not work for any extraneous re- 
ward that cultivates selfishness. He looks broadly upon the 
good of the whole, and follows his thought by action. 

b. So-called bad pupils, pupils with little moral sense, with bad 
habits, surrender gradually to strong public opinion. 

Note. — The teacher who is a genuine organizer of com- 
munity life, must of necessity be an artist teacher, must be 
a persistent student, must study more and more the needs 
of society, and the means of making society better. 



VI. 

MEANS OF EDUCATING CHILDREN. 

Central subjects of knozvledge. 

Geography, define and describe it. 

a. Geography knowledge consists fundamentally in a clear im- 
age of the earth's surface or any part of the earth's surface. 

b. The study of geography is the study of the present appearance 
of the earth's surface. 

c. Another definition is the study of the regular irregularities 
of the earth's surface as presented in island and continental 
formation. 

Geology is the history of the present appearance of the 
earth's surface. 

a. Geography in its relation to geology may be defined as a 
phase of geological history. 

b. The study of geology is the study of the changes which have 
led up to the present appearance of the earth's surface. 

— 17 — 



3- Mineralogy is the study of the material which is con- 
stantly undergoing geological changes. 

a. The mineral which predominates in any characteristic sur- 
face of land determines the surface forms or landscapes. 

4. Meteorology is the study of the action of heat upon air 
and moisture in the air. 

a. The wearing down and building up of the earth's surface are 
dependent, mainly, upon the action of water; and the distri- 
bution of water is dependent upon the action of heat upon 
the atmosphere. 

General Statements. — The three subjects, Geography, 
Geology and Mineralogy, are really one subject. One can- 
not be studied without the other. Geography is a phase of 
geology; geology is a history of geography; and mineralogy 
is the knowledge of the material which is undergoing geo- 
logical changes. 

//. The study of the subject zvhich pertains to inorganic /nat- 
ter, GeograpJiy, Geology and Mineralogy, for?n the study of the 
fonndatioji, the environment, the siipport and the nutritio7i of all 
life, hi other words, life must be studied through its material 
causes. 

1. Botany is the source of the lowest forms of life. 

a. To study any plant properly is to study the environment, the 
support, the nutrition and the function of the plant. 

b. Thus botany is organically related to the studies of organic 
matter. 

2. The same can be said of zoology. All animals are de- 
pendent upon vegetable life, and vegetable life is depen- 
dent upon inorganic matter. 

a. Animals are also dependent upon geographical, geological 
and mineralogical environment. 

3. The study of man. — From the foregoing it may be 
easily argued that man is dependent upon his environ- 
ment of animal and vegetable life, and upon geograph- 
ical, geological, mineralogical and meteorological en- 
vironment. 



4- History. — The study of man consists, first, of anthropol- 
ogy, the study of the human being as an individual and 
second, ethnology, or the study of community life. 

Note — History is a brief and faulty record of human 
life. The history of man can be known only through the 
study of the enyironment of man. 

///. Modes of attention. 

1. Observation. 

2. Hearing language. 



Statements. 

1. The study of the central subjects is the study of the 
universe. 

2. All study is the study of the manifestation of one energy 
through matter. The direction of that energy is law, 
therefore all study is the study of law. 

Conclusion.— The means of educating children are in- 
finite, rich beyond the power of expression. 



MENTAL MOVEMENTS OF THE CHILD TOWARD 
THE IDEAL— IMAGING. 

1. Imaging described. 

a. Mental correspondence to external objects. 

b. Objects within the grasp of the senses. 

c. Objects beyond the grasp of the senses. 

d. Images originated by the mind. 

2. Imaging the main factor in the stream of thought. 

a. Memory. 

b. Revery. 

c. Dreams. 

d. Imaging the future. 

— 19 — 



The growth of images. 

a. Expression. 

b. Concentration. 

c. Synthesis. 

d. Analysis. 

Different kinds of imagery. 

a. Visual. 

b. Auditory. 

c. Tactile. 

d. Motor. 

An image occurs only when it is held in consciousness. 

a. Observation is holding the image under the action of the ex- 
ternal object. 

b. Observation means the concentration of images. 

c. Hearing language is imaging. 

d. Reading is imaging. 

e. Hearing language and reading mean the expression of im- 
ages. 

/. Studying text means both the expression and concentration 
of images. 

Processes of learning to hear language and to read. 

a. Are identical. 

b. Learning a word, both oral and written, means the union of 
the word with its appropriate image. 

Imaging applied to the study of subjects. 

a. Movement of the mind in the study of geography. 

b. Study of botany, etc. 

The part the will plays in imaging. 
a. Relation of the will to the ideal. 



VIII. 

SELF-EXPRESSION.— THE USE OF THE BODY IN 
MANIFESTING THOUGHT. 

I. Expression defined. 

a. Relation of expression to imaging. 

b. Relation of expression to motive. 



2. The origin of expression in the instinct. 

a. Organic circuit. 

b. Motor discharge. 

c. Dynamo genesis. 

d. Man a reactive animal. 

3. Function of expression. 

a. In developing the body. 

b. In the concentration and expression of images. 

c. In the development of right motive, or morality. 

4. Modes of expression. 

a. Gesture. 

b. Voice. 

c. Music. 

d. Speech, including oral reading. 

e. Making. 
/. Modeling. 
^. Painting. 

h. Drawing. 

i. Writing. 

5. Questions for discussion and study. 

a. What is the evolution of the modes of expression? 

b. Was there a particular order of evolution in the race? 

c. What necessities created each mode of expression? 

d. Was each mode of expression an absolute necessity in human 
growth ? 

e. What function had each particular mode of expression in 
human evolution? 

/. Could one of the modes of expression have been left out and 
man have attained his present development? 

6. The function of each mode of expression briefly de- 
scribed. 

7. Is it possible to develop each mode of expression in 
every child? 

a. Has each mode of expression a particular function in child- 
growth? 

b. Is it possible to omit one of the modes of expression and have 
harmonious growth of the body, mind and soul? 

c. Can one or more modes of expression be substituted for an- 
other? 



8. Relation of the modes of expression to the movements 
of the mind. 

a. Observation. 

b. Hearing language. 

c. Reading. 

9. Nascent periods of growth. 

a. Is there a time in tiie development of the body and its nervous 
system when each mode of expression may be best devel- 
oped? 



IX. 

MOTIVE. 



Thesis. — That the altruistic motive, the giving of one's 
powers, body, mind and soul for the good of others, 
should be dominant and controlling in all human action. 

a. That under the execution of this motive, a human being is 
developed into the highest possible moral power. 

b. That in studying and supplying the needs of others, one ac- 
quires the most knowledge and intellectual development. 

c. That the motive of doing good for others leads one to the 
greatest care of the body and, consequently, the best physical 
training. 

Historical proof. 

a. The final judgment of all human organizations, church, state 
and society, is derived from what an organization has put into 
this world as an active and eternal good. That these final 
judgments do not depend upon creed, form of government 
or constitutions, but spiritual effects of human action. 

b. That the final judgment of noted men and women in all ages, 
that the concensus of the opinions of civilized beings depends 
upon the motive of the being, manifested in life and action. 
Acts of selfishness may be admired, but the actors are never 
loved. Acts of altruism are always met by the love of all 
mankind, when sufficient time has elapsed for them to be un- 
derstood and appreciated. By this standard, think of the 
common opinion of mankind of Alexander, Caesar, Napoleon, 
Washington, Lincoln, Florence Nightingale, Comenius, Pes- 
talozzi, and Froebel. The deepest and profoundest instincts 
of man turn unerringly to the altruistic motive. 



3. Common sense proof. 

a. In all our personal friendships, our final judgment of friends 
depends upon our belief of their motive in life. Just so far 
as that motive is for the good of man does the memory of a 
friend remain with us as a sweet incense. 

d. In the instinctive watching, observation and investigation of 
each other, we are guided in our judgments by the altruistic 
motive. We mstinctively turn to the motive of a human 
being as the highest that is in hmi. We even admire animals 
who love their masters. 

4. Art. 

a. There never was in the history of the world a bit of immortal 
art created, music, poetry, painting, or sculpture, under the 
desire for fame or wealth. It is granted that many love truth 
in both art and science for truth's sake, and thus produce 
very important results, but the highest results come from the 
inspiration that the work done will be of use to man. 

5. Moral development. 

a. All there is to study, are the n^eds of matikijid — all there is to 
do, is to supply those needs. 

b. Morality consists in thinking how we can help some one to a 
better life, ethics in putting such thoughts into action. There 
can be neither morality nor ethics unless some one is helped 
thereby to live a more spiritual life. The constant execution 
of the altruistic motion is intrinsic moral growth. 

c. The feeling that every act performed goes into the elevation 
of the human race, is the highest and noblest incentive to 
study. All truth that was ever discovered, or ever will be, is 
for the advancement of civilization. The application of a 
principle to the good of others is the strongest incentive to the 
acquisition of that principle. 

Note. — The altruistic motive, then, — the desire to seek 
and use knowledge for the good of mankind, the belief that 
your personal knowledge is to move on in the eternity of 
good influences, impels to persistence and constant struggle 
for the truth. It gives the deepest insight and the best 
guidance. 

d. The physician who desires to prevent or cure disease out of 
love for humanity. 

<?. The statesman who feels the needs of his people, and has an 
earnest wish to help them. 

f. The teacher whose one problem is to help some weak or de- 
fective child. 



6. Ph\'sical development. 

a. The controlling desire to be of great use to the world leads 
one to nourish, develop, train and otherwise use the body so 
that it will ever be in the highest state of vigor and health- 
No other motive urges one so powerfully to develop the high- 
est physical activity. The best physical training is that which 
best nourishes an active brain. 

7. Overcoming bad habits. 

a. Most human beings are the victims of bad habits. There is no 
spur to courage, persistence, and determmed struggle in over- 
coming and changing a bad habit like the belief that those 
habits will be imitated and enter into the lives of others, crip- 
pling and obstructmg growth. 

8. Practical work. 

a. Vocation is to be judged by what it gives mankind. 

b. In agriculture, trades, business, manufactures and commerce, 
when the highest incentive is the function of the thing made, 
or sold, it enhances the care, art, or artifice in making or sell- 
ing — it inspires one to be honest, careful, artistic. 

c. This work, whatever it may be, is going into the eter7iity of 
hiitnan life, is the strongest incentive to human action. 
Through the altruistic motive, man feels his greatest digfiity. 

9. Altruistic motive applied to teaching. 

a. Education is the science of all sciences; teaching is the art 
of all arts. 

b. The teacher is not only responsible for the spiritual welfare 
of each pupil under her charge, but for every child in the 
never ending series. The teacher is responsible, in a marked 
degree, for society. The school of today is the society of the 
future. 

c. The fundamental incentive to study of subjects of thought 
and the study of the child is an appreciation of the unlimited 
responsibility of the teacher. 

d. The feeling that the realization of human possibilities for 
good are infinite, that true teaching leads to the realization of 
possibilities in the individual, can come only through a pro- 
found and permanent love for humanity. 

e. All great discoveries and reforms in education have come by 
men who were imbued with a dominating love for humanity, 
whose one question was how to make mankind better — 
Comenius, Pestalozzi, Froebel, Horace Mann. 

Note. — Insight and guidance spring from the exercise 
of the altruistic motive. First the comprehension of the 
problem, then the discovery of its solution; first an under- 
standing of human needs, "and then the means to supply 
them. 

— 24 — 



10. An appreciation of the tremendous responsibility of a 
teacher leads to a prolonged and intelligent struggle in 
preparation. 

a. The common aim— the shortest cut into the school-room 
through a diploma or examination. 

b. The common purpose— earning money. 

c. The common result — poor teaching by an artisan teacher. 

11. The profession of teaching requires more preparation, 
moral, intellectual and professional, than any other pro- 
fession. 

a. Appreciation of the greatness of the art leads a candidate to 
make every effort, financial and otherwise, to acquire the art. 

b. One who has any appreciation of the art, or feeling of respon- 
sibility of teaching, shrinks from entering the school as a 
teacher. This shrinking never leaves a true teacher. 

c. The necessity for courage is greatly enhanced by the exceed- 
ingly low state of public opinion in regard to education. It 
is also enhanced by the extreme difficulties in overcoming 
prevailing defective methods; in convincing superintendents 
and principals that better methods and means be used. 

d. The only way to introduce better means and methods is to 
practically demonstrate their use and superiority. People are 
like Thomas — they believe when they see and /eel. 

e. Such reforms require great and persistent courage, tact, pa- 
tience, and self-control— all of which are not possible without 
a dominating love for humanity. 

12. Love for children leads teachers to a close study of per- 
sonalities, to an appreciation of the good in them, and 
to an understanding of their evil tendencies. 

a. There is a false love for children, a superficial sympathy, — a 
pleasure in tricks and manners, — a desire to be loved by 
them, which leads to petting and over-exercise of precocious 
instincts. 

b. A true love for children is the one incentive to understand 
them, to study their natures, to differentiate one character 
from all others, to comprehend personal needs. 

c. To know a child and to supply his needs — is the sum and sub- 
stance of all education. Teaching demands one everlasting 
study of personal character, one patient and persistent pres- 
entation of conditions for the growth and development of 
that character. 

-25- 



d. Love begets patience.— Q\v3iX\g&% in character come about with 
great slowness. Changes in character mean changes in brain- 
development, changes in muscles, in nerves, indeed, in the 
whole being. A chronic difficulty, physical, moral, or mental, 
yields only to constant and well-directed application of the 
right means to the end. — Love alone can find the way. 

c. Such love develops the highest courage— courage to stand 
between the child and all evil influences of badly arranged 
courses of study, public opinion, unjust demands of parents, 
ignorant supervision, examinations upon memorized words, 
the immoral fear of punishment. No one can understand the 
child's edticational needs but the teacher. 

13. Intellectual development of the teacher. 

a. The child is the central subject of study beneath the throne 
of God. 

b. The teacher, incited by love, is a constant and persistent 
student of the child and its needs, which comprehends all 
knowledge. 

c. Each child differs from all others, therefore, a new pupil is a 
new study. 

d. There is no means of mental growth comparable with teach- 
ing. 

14. Moral growth. 

a. The development of the altruistic motive is essentially moral 
growth. 

b. Love of humanity concenters upon the weak and the helpless. 

15. Physical training. 

a. Any imperfect state of the body — any chronic physical weak- 
ness, any temporary sickness, is a great hindrance to teaching 
power. 

b. A teacher is quite apt to fancy that her pupils are in disorder, 
when the disorder is a personal and physical one. 

16. Moral trainining. 

a. If the foregoing is true, then, all the teacher has to do is to 
cultivate the altruistic motive in her pupils. 

b. An ideal school is an ideal community. 



26 



X. 

EDUCATIONAL VALUES. 

All knowledge is for the education of man. 

a. The value of knowledge is its use in making human life 
better. 

b. Knowledge has only one true value; that knowledge alone 
which enhances moral power in the individual. 

c. In order to make knowledge valuable it must be adapted to 
the needs of the individual. 

d. The individual must feel the need of certain knowledge in 
order to make it personally valuable. The immediate func- 
tion of knowledge is the guide to its selection. 

e. Valuable knowledge is knowledge in moral use. Unusable 
knowledge is worthless to the pupil. 

All studies are comprised in man and nature, or in one, 
the Creator of man and nature. 

a. We study one all-comprehensive energy which manifests it- 
self in man and nature, that is, in the universe.. 
Man. 

a. Anthropology — a study of the individual. 

1. The nature and evolution of the body. 

2. The nature and evolution of mind, psychology. 

3. The moral or religious nature of man. 

4. Archaeology, the ancient products of man's mind. 

5. The art and the arts of man and their evolution. 

6. Biography; the lives of individuals. 

b. Ethnology. — The evolution of community life. 

1. Social relations — life. 

2. Man's community life in all its forms— tribe, clan, in- 
stitutions, village, citv, state, nation. 

3. History—a very imperfect record of community life. 

4. The literature and art of any historical epoch is the 
evidence of the highest spiritual life of that period. 

Value of the study of man. 

a. It teaches the individual what he cost — countless wars, perse- 
cutions, martyrdom, reforms, moral and physical courage. 

b. Through all history runs the perpetual strife for personal 
liberty. 

c. Personal liberty is the right of personal choice. 

d. Every right choice is a step toward personal freedom. 

— 27 - 



e. All right choice lies within the laws of God— choice outside 

of those laws is license. 
/. Perfect freedom is perfect obedience to God's laws. 

o. True study consists intrinsically in the discovery of law; ex- 
pression should be the application of law. 

//. Ethnology, with its written record — history, is the study of the 
evolution of personal liberty. 

i. The highest product of the study is that the spirit, methods 
and laws of this evolution may enter into and dominate human 
action. 

5. Nature is the inexhaustible supply of man's material 
needs. 

a. Geography — the structure of his home. 

b. Botany and zoology — the nourishment, shelter and clothing, 
t. Geology, mineralogy, meteorology — the nourishment and sup- 
port of life. 

6. Nature furnishes man's aesthetic needs. 

a. Nature is full of beauty, grandeur and sublimity. 

b. Moral nature. 

"i. In nature man has continual lessons of perfect and im- 
mutable law. 

2. He recognizes nature as a manifestation of invisible 
power. 

c. From the beginning, nature has given man material comforts, 
nourishment and means of progress, inexhaustible means of 
cultivating his love for the beautiful, and an infinite study of 
the law and love of the Creator. 

I. Nature is closely bound to history — history of inventions, 
history of progress, of the origin and growth of myth, of 
the discoveries that have made progress in civilization 
possible. 

7. Application of the knowledge of man and nature to 
human growth by means of education. 

a. Man is the everlasting demand; God the infinite supply. 

b. Function or use of knowledge is the only safe guide to its 
adaption to personal growth. 

c. The one true incentive to the gaining of knowledge is its im- 
mediate use. 

d. This incentive the pupil must feel and appreciate before he 
puts forth his best efforts to gain a certain knowledge. 

e. The incentive to all voluntary human activity is the personal 
ideal. 

— 28 — 



8. Personal incentives. 

a. Material use. 

b. Food, clothing, home comforts, luxuries. 

c. The child is intensely interested in these subjects, and is there- 
fore more than ready to learn more of them. 

d. Any one of these subjects leads directly to the study of all 
subjects. 

9. Love of the beautiful and the community enjoyment of 
the beautiful. 

a. The love of beauty is just as essential to human growth as 
purely material necessities. 

b. Without good taste in art and nature there can be no ideal 
community life. 

10. Love of the truth. 

a. Man is a truth-seeking animal. 

b. Growth into the truth is human progress — the central ideal of 
true community life. 

c. An ideal community means the search for the truth on the 
part of each one of its members. 

11. Selection of knowledge. 

a. That alone should be selected which makes school co?nmufiity 
life better. 

b. The children viiist feel the need of everything selected for 
them. 

c. Biography of really great and good men and women, to enter 
and inspire the living — Abraham Lincoln. 

d. Historical events, describing how men have stood together 
for the right — Bunker Hill. 

e. Nature and art that arouses and stimulates a love for the 
beautiful. 

/. History that teaches a child to discriminate between the right 

and wrong of his acts toward others. 
g. Science that is of immediate use in home, school and society. 
h. Myth that creates beautiful images and leads to unconscious 

inferences in regard to right living. 
i. Nature that touches strongly the deep instinct of curiosity. 
j . Man and nature that create a feeling of the omnipresence of 

one supreme, loving Power. 



29 



XI. 

READING AS A MEANS OF STUDY. 

Definition of reading. 

a. Importance and place of reading. 

b. Relation of reading to observation. 

c. Relation of reading to study. 

d. Reading as a means of thinking. 

Reading incidental to all studies. 

a. Make use of the nascent period in which the child is ready to 
learn to read. 

b. Teach reading as incidental to all studies. 

c. Arouse a greater desire to know words. 

d. Relation of writing to reading. 

Silent reading; or, reading without oral expression. 

a. The child tells the thought he gains by reading, in his own 
words. 

b. Training a child to study. 

Oral reading. 

a. Function of oral reading. 

b. There is altogether too much oral reading. 

c. When should a child read orally? 

d. Dramatic reading. 

Selection of literature for reading. 

a. A child should never read anything but good literature. 



XII. 
ARITHMETIC AS AN APPLIED SCIENCE. 

Definition of arithmetic. 

a. Arithmetic is measuring space and weight. 

Operations in arithmetic. 

a. All operations in arithmetic are extremely simple. 

Application of arithmetic to all other studies. 

a. There can be no educative thought without measuring. 

b. All subjects demand arithmetical thought. 

First steps in arithmetic. 

a. How numbers should be evolved. 



30 



WHAT TEACHERS MAY LEARN FROM CHILD 
STUDY. 

1. To know the child and to supply his needs is the begin- 
ning and end of the art of teaching. 

a. Child study helps the teacher to diagnose the child. 

b. To understand defects that obstruct mental and moral action. 

c. To watch for and know the nascent periods of childhood. 

d. The knowledge of nascent periods is the teacher's guide to 
the introduction of subjects and the training of children to 
master processes of expression and attention. 

e. The study of fatigue keeps teachers from abortive attempts 
in arousing and sustaining interest. 

/. The value of the reactions of expression upon thought. 

2. All teachers should be trained to test eyes, ears and the 
motor powers of children. 

3. The fundamental thing in child study is a knowledge of 
childrens' interests. 



XIV. 

UNITY OF EFFORT ON THE PART OF TEACH- 
ERS AND SUPERVISORS. 

(Syllabus to be printed.) 



XV. 

THE TEACHER AT WORK. 

I . Preparatio7i , preparation , preparation ! 

a. Study each child continually. 

b. Is he interested in school work? 

c. Is the point of his interest the avoidance of punishment? 

d. Is the point of his interest the gaining of rewards and per- 



cents!' 



e. In what is he really interested ? 
f. How do you judge the motive that controls a pupil's action? 

Every pupil is interested all the time. 

a. Is a pupil interested in teasing your 

b. Is he interested in making fun for his mates, or in teasing 
them? 

c. Is his mind imaging objects of interest entirely foreign to the 
lesson? 

Dull or backward pupils. 

a. Study the causes of dullness. 

b. Physical defects — eyes, ears, nervous system. 

c. Heredity. 

d. Imperfect and poor physical nourishment. 

e. Disease; a disease, like scarlet fever, generally weakens the 
brain. 

f. Dullness or habits of inattention to school work caused by 
poor teaching. 

g. Your own teaching may not arouse interest. 
h. Lack of success in arousmg and sustaining interest is, with 

very few exceptions, the fault of the teacher. 

Adaptation of the subject matter to the interests of 
pupils. 

a. Next to lack of knowledge of the children is lack of knowl- 
edge of the subjects taught. 

b. Do you have an intense enthusiasm for the subjects you teach? 

c. Do you continually study the subjects, and do you always 
find something new in them? 

d. Xo one can really study any subject like geography, history, 
science, without loving it. 

e. The great mistake made by teachers who know their subject 
is that they try to make their pupils understand, at once, the 
outcome of years of study. 

f. What are your tests of interest? 

g. What is the difference between the form by which a thought 
is expressed and the thought itself? 

Skill in expression. 

a. The function of all acts of expression is intense imaging. 

b. Children love to manifest thought. 

c. Use each and every mode of expression. 

d. Choose that mode of expression best adapted to the thought ,t^ 
and to the child. 

e. Mere word learning kills original expression. 



32 



'-i '■' 



/. The skill of the teacher Is the principal factor in training 
pupils to use correctly and clearly the forms of thouf:^ht- ex- 
pression. 

^. Teachers should be persistent in acquiring skill in all the 
forms of expression— writing, drawing, speaking, oral read- 
ing, etc. 

6. Attention in recitation. 

a. Strive to lead every pupil to be attentive to the work in hand. 

d. Watch the faces of the entire class. 

c. At the least sign of inattention on the part of a pupil, ask him 
instantly a pertinent question. 

cf. Always require pupils to tell you anything you may tell them. 

e. Never questibn in order of position. 

/. Never hold a tdxt-book in your hand while you are teaching. 

7. Faults in teaching. 

a. Asking leading questions. 

d. Repeating pupil's answers. 

c. Using set exclamations, phrases, sentences continually — 
"Well, well," " That is good," "Right." 

d. Falling into mannerisms. 

8. Above all, always be happy, cheerful. Just before pu- 
pils become fatigued, sing, march, have physical train- 
ing. 

" Be ye not conformed to this world, but be ye transformed in 
the newness of light." 



% 



— 33 —